8TH KILOMETER

8TH KILOMETER | BOR | SERBIA 2021

8TH KILOMETER | BOR | SERBIA 2021

THE 3RD
KILOMETER

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km3

Kolovratar Đura, Bor Stream in the 1950s

Bor, 1950s (Public Library of Bor)

Kolovratar Đura, Panoramic View of the Northern Part of Bor in 1953. The Hospital building is in the foreground and the Temple of St. Megalomartyr George is in the center of the photo

Bor, 1953 (Public Library of Bor)

After the end
of the WWII

< Kolovratar Đura, Bor Stream in the 1950s

Bor, 1950s (Public Library of Bor)

With the end of the Second World War began the planned development of Bor, when the settlement officially gained city status and became a significant center of mining industry for the entire federation. The inception of the planned development started with a mining colony, formed in the vicinity of an already present village, and can be recognized in the planned construction of apartments for workers and more luxurious villas for engineers, and gradual erection of basic health, education and culture centers, which adhered by their nature and use to the hierarchy of organized social structure and the expansion of the company.

After 1960

Following 1960, due to sudden economic, demographic and spatial growth, it has been decided that the direction of the town‘s development would point southwards, governed by the location of an open-cast mine and industrial facilities, land configuration, the assessment that relocating the town away from the mine would be unprofitable, and the decision to retain certain town services within the present urban area.

Markov Ljubomir, Blasting in Krivelj Open-Cast Mine

Bor, 1992 (Public Library of Bor)

Kolovratar Đura, Construction of a tunnel for draining Bor stream

Bor, 1955 (Public Library of Bor)

Today‘s spatial and urban planning in the town and municipality of Bor has been defined by partial approaches and the urgency of solving technical problems stemming from the expansion of open-cast mines close to the populated area and inevitable relocation of existing structures and activities.

The absence of comprehensive understanding of Bor municipality space and the lack of consideration for the correlation between all development aspects of the environment, settlement and RTB Bor‘s industrial area impede discernment of town‘s elementary problems – environmental pollution and depopulation – within spatial and social context. Today, the physical structure of Bor stands witness to a specific process of planning and construction, brought to a halt in the last two decades by discontinuing organized and planned construction, on account of its uncertain economic, social and ecological future.

In the linear nature of built structures there is a noticeable gap – an open unbuilt space, on one side bordering the second and third and on the other the fourth spatial section delineated by the Master Urban Plan of Bor from 2015 (“second” and “fourth kilometer”), which extends perpendicular to the main axis of the town‘s layout. Accordingly, in this project, the topic of (under)planned town development is directly linked to the third section, i.e. the third kilometer of Bor.

Markov Ljubomir, Panoramic View of Bor Taken From a Plane in 1990. This photo shows a panoramic view of Bor extending from the Fourth Local Community northward

Bor, 1990 (Public Library of Bor)

Connecting the premises of the substation Bor 1 with the site of the Bor shooting range, this stretch of land is intersected by overhead power lines whose vertical towers interact with the topography thus forming an impromptu ensemble highly visible from the town‘s main thoroughfare.

Kolovratar Đura, Panoramic View of Bor. Nova Kolonija neighborhood

Bor, 1953 (Public Library of Bor)

Markov Ljubomir, Panoramic View of Bor Taken From Strelište

Bor, 200? (Public Library of Bor)

UNDERPLANNED

From another vantage point, especially from a viewpoint at its western end, this space offers a clear view of the townscape surrounded by tailings dams and RTB Bor industrial complex. Cutting through the built areas of the town, this gap spreads out towards Brestovac forest and a wider tourism region surrounding Bor Lake, Brestovačka Banja Spa and the nature reserve of the Kučaj Mountains, offering stark contrast to the environmentally degraded industrial town.

This project explores the possibilities of using the described stretch of land as a trigger of a kind for setting up a systematic approach to monitoring the environmental aspects in Bor. Bearing in mind the specific relationship between the environmental problems and economic, cultural and political issues in Bor, this project tries to explore the potential of designed physical structure as a symbol of inextricable bond between the town, the mine and the environment which suffers as collateral damage in the midst of economical, techno-managerial and current-politics gains, lacking any support in the shape of methodical planning of social and spatial development.

< Markov Ljubomir, Panoramic View of Bor Taken From Strelište

Bor, 200? (Public Library of Bor)