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Markov Ljubomir, The Fourth Local Community Neighborhood

Bor, 1991 (Public Library of Bor)

Kolovratar Đura, Niška Street in 1950s Bor

Bor, 195? (Public Library of Bor)

By year 2000, the economic and functional value of different types of solar collectors and accumulators will be established beyond any doubt and they will be introduced to wider public use.

< Markov Ljubomir, The Fourth Local Community Neighborhood

Bor, 1991 (Public Library of Bor)

The fourth kilometer of Bor is most prominent for its socially-oriented residential construction containing systematically designed housing estates, such as the Fourth Local Community, with collective residential buildings reflecting socialist-modernist values and belonging to the period of planned spatial, urban and social development of Bor. These spaces were designed and constructed during the 1960s and the 1970s, with the idea of achieving a higher housing standard than the one inherited from the interwar period.

Mitić Dragoljub, Nikole Pašića Street in the Old Town Center Near Liberation Square

Bor, 1967 (Public Library of Bor)

The heating

Particularly indicative of this standard was the heating system. District heating was a commodity yet to be found within residential areas throughout Yugoslavia, and therefore represented an important criterion of the contemporary housing standard. Therefore, the town of Bor is especially interesting in the context of Yugoslavia for its successfully implemented heating system as of 1977. Namely, “Bor heating plant has the largest thermal energy production capacity in Eastern Serbia, and Bor holds the first place in the entire Serbia with about 95% of the city territory covered by the heat network. Bor is the city with the largest percentage of households connected to the teleheating system – over 80% of households are connected to the system.”

< Mitić Dragoljub, Nikole Pašića Street in the Old Town Center Near Liberation Square

Bor, 1967 (Public Library of Bor)

Markov Ljubomir, Construction of the Fourth Local Community Neighbourhood

Bor, 1976 (Public Library of Bor)

Markov, Ljubomir, The Fourth Local Community Neighbourhood at the Crossroad of October 3 St. and The 9th Brigade St.

Bor, 1983 (Public Library of Bor)

Markov Ljubomir Buildings Damaged by a Landslide
at the Edge of the Old Open-Cast Mine in Bor

Bor, 1994 (Public Library of Bor)

Heating plant <> RTB Bor

The Forth Local Community was the first housing estate in Bor to incorporate district heating, thus becoming one of the more desirable places to live in. Taking this as a point of departure for this research, the Forth Local Community and its heating system represent the background of our projection of the fourth kilometer’s future.

However, one must not assume that the heating system, same as any other aspect of the town today, could be divorced from the mining and smelting industry of Bor. The heating plant was built on RTB Bor land, thus using their resources, and the heating process itself is coupled to RTB Bor’s smelting operations. Further complicating this relationship, including its influence on the housing estates and their residents, is the case of RTB Bor privatization. As it was mentioned in the introduction, Chinese company Zijin Mining Group acquired RTB Bor, including its land resources, thus throwing into question the future of democracy and equality in the production and distribution of the city heating.

Mitić Dragoljub, Portrait of a Boy Riding a Wooden Horse

Bor, 1966 (Public Library of Bor)

Kolovratar Đura, Plucking and Preparing Chickens in the Kitchen

Bor, 195? (Public Library of Bor)


This project’s intention is to emphasize the codependent relationship between the mining and smelting operations, heating system and housing standard by re-interpreting it in the context of economic and environmental sustainability. The intervention is furthermore supported by the planning propositions made in the Master Urban Plans of Bor from 1983 and 2018. Therefore, this project explores two possible scenarios:

1) utilization of secondary (waste) thermal energy produced during smelting process;
2) installation of a solar hill – “For high-capacity centralized collectors, the prerequisite is the existence of a large and well exposed space that cannot be used for other purposes. The tailings hills east of Bor can play an important role in this.”